Best THC Cartridge of 2022 – Top 5 Relaxing & Rechargeable Brands

Prefilled THC vape cartridges are a great way to enjoy your favorite cannabis strains without having to fuss with the messy process of packing a bowl or waiting for cannabis edibles to kick in. With the nearly immediate onset, THC vape cartridges offer fast, discreet, and easy dosing of your favorite strains. Made from several different cannabinoid compounds, including THC and CBD as well as terpenes, prefilled THC carts can be found in a variety of flavors and strain profiles to suit anyone’s needs and preferences.

As the popularity of these products continues to grow, though, so too does the number of brands and products available on the market. Without careful consideration of all the available options, it’s easy to get overwhelmed and end up with a THC vape cartridge that doesn’t quite fit your needs.

To help you make the best decision for your next purchase, we’ve put together a list of the five best THC cartridge options on the market today. Detailing everything from potency and price to flavor and effects, this list has everything you need to know to find the perfect prefilled THC cartridge for your next cannabis adventure.

Top 5 THC Vape Cartridges

  1. iDELTA8 – Editor’s Choice: Best THC Cartridge
  2. Koi CBD – Runner Up: Pure Delta-8 THC Cartridge
  3. Koi CBD – Staff Pick: Best THC-O Cartridge
  4. Secret Nature – Consumer Favorite: Best Live Resin THC Vape Cartridge
  5. Just Delta – Honorable Mention: Best Budget Friendly

Reviews: Five Best THC Vape Cartridges

Each cartridge on this list contains a form of hemp-derived THC cannabinoids. Hemp cannabinoids offer a wider variety of choices for those seeking different forms of THC, such as Delta-8, THC-O, THC-10, THC-P, and THC-V. No matter the type of cannabinoid used in a vape cartridge on this list, the end result is a potent and effective way to consume THC cannabinoids.

1. iDELTA8 – Editor’s Choice: Best THC Cartridges

Pros:

  • Wide range of uncommon THC strains
  • THC concentrations based on customer needs
  • Refined cannabis oil for smooth hits
  • Third-party lab results are available online
  • Multi-cannabinoid formulas

Cons:

  • Free shipping only available on orders over $99

Offering several prefilled and disposable THC cartridge options, iDELTA8 truly fulfills its mission to provide customers with a curated selection of some of the best THC concentrate available.

What makes iDELTA8 so great is the attention to detail that goes into every cartridge. All iDELTA8’s products are made with premium, refined cannabis oil that has been expertly extracted to preserve as much of the original plant material as possible. This provides a smooth smoking experience with little to no harshness on the throat or lungs.

All of iDELTA8’s products are also third-party lab tested for potency and purity, so you can be sure you’re getting exactly what you’re paying for.

THC vape cartridges at iDELTA8
iDELTA8’s premium THC vape cartridge options are hemp-derived products, made organic and “on demand”. Available in three tiers, Siler, Gold, and Diamond, iDELTA8’s cartridges range in THC concentration and are available in the following strain varieties:

  • Blue Dream
  • Skywalker
  • Northern Lights
  • White Recluse
  • Pineapple Express
  • Blackberry Kush

The Silver tier of iDELTA8 THC oil vape carts contains 2:1 ratios of full-spectrum hemp oil and Delta-8 THC. By combining higher levels of non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD) and lower levels of Delta-8 THC, first-time users and low-dose vapers can enjoy the entourage effects of hemp cannabinoids without overwhelming psychoactive effects.

Gold tier iDELTA8 THC oil vape carts contain 1:1 ratios of full-spectrum hemp oil and Delta-8 THC. This 50/50 blend is perfect for those seeking a more intense experience with Delta-8 THC while still enjoying the benefits of CBD and other hemp cannabinoids.

Extracted using techniques that remove all impurities and residual solvents, Diamond tier iDELTA8 THC oil vape carts contain nothing but Delta-8 THC oil. This ultra-refined option provides users with a potent full-gram dose of Delta-8 THC whenever needed.

Other THC Varieties
In addition to the Delta-8 potent THC oil cartridges, iDELTA8 also offers alternative THC-derivatives such as:

  • THC-O
  • THC-V
  • Delta-10
  • THC-P

Gaining popularity for their purported interactions with endocannabinoid receptors that regulate a number of vital functions in the body, these lesser-known cannabinoids are perfect for those seeking a truly unique experience with THC.

Learn more about iDELTA8

2. Koi CBD Delta 8 – Runner up: Best Delta-8 THC

Pros:

  • Pure Delta-8 THC
  • No artificial fillers or additives
  • Full-spectrum analysis and testing
  • No heavy metals
  • 20% savings with a subscription order

Cons:

  • Not able to ship to the entire USA

Maintaining high standards for their CBD products, Koi CBD now offers a line of Delta-8 THC carts that are just as impressive. Made from CO2-extracted full-spectrum hemp oil, Koi’s Delta-8 THC carts are some of the purest on the market. They’re also free from artificial fillers or additives, so you can be sure you’re getting a natural product.

To ensure potency and purity, all of Koi’s products are third-party lab tested for heavy metals, pesticides, and other impurities, with detailed COAs available on each product page.

THC vape cartridges at Koi CBD
Koi CBD’s Delta 8 THC vape cartridges are packaged in one-time use cartridges that can be screwed into any 510 thread vape battery. Containing 1 gram of Delta-8 THC oil per cartridge, vapers can purchase THC oil cartridges in the following cannabis plant strains:

  • Purple Punch (indica)
  • Super Sour Diesel (sativa hybrid)
  • Gelato (indica)
  • Pink Rozay (indica)
  • Platinum OG (indica)
  • CG#4 (India hybrid)
  • Lemon Runtz (hybrid)
  • Orange Kush (sativa)
  • Strawguava (sativa)
  • Blackberry Kush (indica)

Sativa Delta 8 THC Carts
Koi CBD sativa THC oil cartridges contain full-spectrum Delta 8 THC oil derived from hemp. Containing a blend consisting primarily of Delta-8 THC, these one-time use cartridges also contain trace amounts of CBN and Delta-10 THC for added support to cannabinoid receptors that regulate mood.

Indica Delta 8 THC Carts
Koi CBD indica THC oil cartridges contain the highest concentration of Delta 8 THC oil derived from hemp. Free from artificial additives or fillers, these one-time-use cartridges also contain trace amounts of CBN and Delta-10 THC for a potent blend of relaxing cannabinoids.

Hybrid Delta 8 THC Carts
Koi CBD hybrid THC oil cartridges are packed with full-spectrum delta 8 THC oil derived from hemp. Formulated with a slightly lower concentration of Delta-8 THC due to the strains used, these one-time use cartridges also contain trace amounts of CBN and Delta-10 THC for added support to cannabinoid receptors that regulate pain perception.

Learn more about Koi CBD

3. Koi CBD THC 0 – Staff Pick: Best THC-O Cartridge

Pros:

  • Terpene-rich formula
  • Manufactured under strict quality control standards
  • Contains multiple THC compounds
  • Made from organic hemp

Cons:

  • Users may experience more intense effects than other types of THC products
  • Some COAs need to be requested via live chat

Koi CBD isn’t just about one type of THC; they offer a variety of products that each provide unique effects. One such product is their line of THC-O vape carts, perfect for those seeking an intense, long-lasting stimulation of cannabinoid receptors.

Made from organic hemp and manufactured under strict quality control standards, Koi’s THC-O carts are rich in terpenes. They also contain multiple THC compounds, including Delta-8 and Delta-9 THC, sourced from organic hemp plants. Manufactured and tested under the same high standards as all of Koi’s products, these carts are free from pesticides and other impurities that would compromise their quality or potency.

THC-O Vape Cartridges at Koi CBD
Terpene-rich, premium THC-O oil for sale at Koi CBD can be used in vape pens compatible with 510 thread batteries. Each 1-gram cartridge contains a potent blend of Delta-8 THC, Delta-9 THC, and THC-O for an entourage effect that’s sure to satisfy even the most experienced vapers. Available in three different varieties, THC-O oil cartridges can be purchased in the following strains:

  • Cherry Pie (hybrid)
  • Banana OG (indica)
  • Blue Walker (sativa)

Cherry Pie THC-O vape cartridges
Cherry Pie is a hybrid strain known in the medicinal cannabis world as the go-to for cerebral wellness needs. Containing that same fresh-baked earthy spice flavor with a notable hint of cherries, Koi CBD Cherry Pie vape carts provide users with a fun way to dose THC-O throughout the day or night.

Banana OG THC-O vape cartridges
Quite popular for indica lovers who prefer nighttime dosing of cannabinoids, Banana OG THC-O vape carts contain plant compounds with high bioavailability, and are perfect for those seeking an effective way to wind down at the end of the day.

Blue Walker THC-O vape cartridges
Blue Walker is a sativa-dominant hybrid preferred for daytime use. With a sweet, fruity, diesel flavor, Blue Walker THC-O vape carts from Koi CBD are most popular among users who enjoy supplementing their creative talents with a stimulating vaping experience.

Learn more about Koi CBD

4. Secret Nature – Consumer Favorite: Best Live Resin THC Vape Cartridge

Pros:

  • Contain cold-pressed live resin terpenes
  • Thousands of 5-star reviews
  • 100% organic THC oils
  • Batch-tested for purity and potency

Cons:

  • Vape pen battery not included

Secret Nature has taken the way we think about live resin and cannabis concentrates to a new level. Sourcing their flowers from top-shelf genetics, this company uses a proprietary cold-pressed extraction process that preserves the plant’s natural terpene profile. The result is a line of all-natural, potent, and flavorful vape cartridges that are sure to satisfy new and regular THC users.

Batch testing their proprietary, artisanal live resin for purity and potency, each of Secret Nature’s vape carts contains 100% organic THC oil. Specially formulated with a blend of cold-pressed live resin terpenes, these carts are designed to provide users with an unforgettable vaping experience.

THC vape cartridges at Secret Nature
Secret Nature spent years perfecting its various Delta 8 formulas. From pure D8 blends to full-spectrum CBD and THC combinations, there’s a Secret Nature vape cartridgefor everyone. One gram cartridges can be purchased in the following varieties:

  • Super 8 (pure Delta 8)
  • Delta-8 + CBC
  • Full-spectrum THC-V

Super 8 vape cartridges
Super 8 is the most popular THC vape cartridge at Secret Nature. Made from pure Delta 8, this potent cart is available in five different strains that vary between indica, sativa, and hybrid. Packed with terpenes such as myrcene, limonene, and caryophyllene, each Super 8 cart provides users with a unique flavor profile and effects.

Delta-8 + CBC vape cartridges
Delta-8 + CBC vape cartridges from Secret Nature are designed for those who prefer a touch of full-spectrum live resin CBD with their THC vaping experience. Formulated with the perfect ratio of Delta-8 and cannabichromene (CBC), these carts provide users with an entourage effect that is said to be more comprehensive than pure Delta 8 alone.

THC-V vape cartridges
Want all of the THC compounds you can get in a high-quality hemp oil? Consider purchasing live-resin hemp oil with THC-V, Delta-8, and Delta-9 THC. Packed with terpenes, flavonoids, and CB1 stimulating cannabinoids, these carts can provide a full-on wellness experience that makes daytime or nighttime a pleasure to enjoy.

Learn more about Secret Nature

5. Just Delta – Honorable Mention: Best Budget Friendly

Pros:

  • 30-day money back guarantee
  • Made in cGMP certified facility
  • Batch tested for safety and potency
  • up to 30% off on subscription orders

Cons:

  • Additional processing charges can increase order total depending on the payment method

Just Delta envisions a world where people can live happy and healthy lives, free of the negative consequences of THC. That’s why this company is on a mission to provide users with the highest quality Delta 8 products at the most affordable prices. To help make that happen, they offer a 30-day money back guarantee on all orders.

In addition to being budget-friendly, Just Delta’s products are also some of the highest quality. Their vape cartridges are made in a cGMP-certified facility and batch tested for safety and potency. With premium THC oil extracts packaged in easy-to-use cartridges, Just Delta makes it easy for users to enjoy vaping Delta 8 without breaking the bank.

THC vape cartridges at Just Delta
Blending botanical terpenes with plant lipids and full-spectrum Delta-8 THC oil, Just Delta’s THC vape carts are designed to provide users with an elevated vaping experience. Flavorful, potent, and all-natural, these carts are available in the following strains:

  • Space Walker
  • Solar Flare Lemonade
  • Bubblegum Galaxy
  • Pineapple Express
  • Zkittles
  • Strawberry Cough

Providing superb vaping experiences no matter the strain type, Just Delta’s carts contain cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids naturally found in hemp plants and known to stimulate the entourage effect. Additionally, with added plant lipids to enhance the absorption of THC, these carts are designed to give users the most bang for their buck.

For those who don’t want to worry about their vape pens running out of juice, Just Delta also offers a line of potent disposable vape cartridges complete with a pre-charged battery. Available in Delta-8, Delta-10, and full-spectrum THC cannabinoid formulas, these all-in-one vape cartridges provide users with a discreet, convenient, and potent vaping experience.

Whether you’re looking for a budget-friendly option or premium quality THC oil, Just Delta has you covered with its premium vape cartridges and disposable vape pens.

Learn more about Just Delta

How Did We Make This List of the Top THC Vape Cartridges?

Our researchers knew at the beginning that creating a list of the best THC cartridges for sale would require looking at several characteristics that make a product great. So, to develop our list, we looked at things like:

  • Price: We believe that everyone should have access to high-quality THC cartridges, so we made sure to include products that are both affordable and premium quality.
  • Potency: All of the products on our list are potent and designed to give users a powerful THC vaping experience.
  • Flavor: We know that flavor is important to many THC vapers, so we only included products with great-tasting flavors.
  • Testing: We only included products that have been third-party lab tested for safety and potency, with detailed lab reports readily available on the company’s website.
  • Customer Reviews: We read thousands of customer reviews to better understand the products’ real-world performance as well as the brand’s reputation.

By examining all of these factors and combining the results with our personal experiences, our team was able to compile the above list of best THC cartridges made using only the highest quality ingredients and manufacturing process.

How Do THC Cartridges Work?

While wildly popular as a fast and easy consumption method of THC, the mechanics of how THC carts work is a mystery to many users. Here, we’ll give a brief overview of how these devices operate so that you can better understand the product you’re using – and maybe even gain insight into the right THC vape cartridge for you.

Specific designs may vary from company to company, but THC vape cartridges typically contain:

  • A mouthpiece: This is the part you put your lips on and suck the vapor through.
  • A heating element: This vaporizes the liquid inside the cartridge so it can be inhaled.
  • A wick: This soaks up the oil and delivers it to the heating element.
  • A thread: This allows the cartridge to be screwed onto a vape battery.
  • A chamber: This is where the oil is stored.

When a THC cartridge is screwed into a vape pen battery, the heating element is activated and begins to heat up the liquid inside the chamber. This liquid – which can contain THC, CBD, terpenes, and other cannabinoids – is vaporized and can then be inhaled by the user through the mouthpiece.

Vape pens don’t automatically stay on – they require the user to press a button to activate the heating element. This ensures that the vape pen battery doesn’t accidentally turn on and waste battery life or product.

Heating is typically performed by a ceramic coil, which is considered the best material for vaporizing liquids as it doesn’t alter the product’s flavor and provides even heating. However, some companies also use quartz coils, which heat up more quickly than ceramic but don’t last as long.

Inhaling THC vapor from heated oil in the chamber causes fast absorption into the bloodstream through the lungs. In most cases, users report feeling the effects of vaped THC oil within minutes, making it one of the fastest ways to experience the benefits of THC.

Vape cartridges can come in varying sizes, with the most popular being .5gram and 1gram. When a vape cartridge has run out of oil, it can simply be disposed of and replaced with a new one. Additionally, vape cartridges can be exchanged anytime for those who prefer specific strains at certain times of the day or night.

What Are the Benefits of THC?

Tetrahydrocannabinol – or THC – is the primary psychoactive compound found in cannabis plants. This cannabinoid is responsible for many of the plant’s effects, both recreational and medicinal. Some of the potential benefits associated with products containing THC from hemp cannabis plants include:

  • Relief from chronic pain and inflammation
  • Reduced anxiety and stress
  • Improved sleep quality
  • Lower frequency of epileptic seizures

THC has also been shown to have neuroprotective qualities, which could help slow the progression of degenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. However, it is essential to note that many of these benefits have been attributed specifically to Delta-9 THC, as this cannabinoid has been studied the most.

But, while Delta-9 THC remains the most widely studied of the cannabinoids found in hemp plants – it isn’t the only one that could offer similar (if not more potent) potential benefits.

Delta-8 THC, for example, is widely considered a more potent anti-inflammatory agent than its more widely known counterpart due to its function in the hemp plant as a natural insecticide. In addition, this cannabinoid has also been shown to bind more strongly than Delta-9 THC to the CB1 receptors in the brain – which could make it more effective at treating conditions like anxiety and stress.

But the most significant benefit of Delta-8 THC? Less risk of paranoia and anxiety compared to Delta-9, making it an excellent option for first-time cannabis users or those who are looking for a milder vaping experience.

Some THC users have also found personal wellness benefits in other THC derivatives such as THC-O, THC-V, THC-p, and Delta-10 THC. Each of these cannabinoids offers a unique set of advantages and effects, so it’s worth researching to see which could be the best fit for you and your wellness needs.

Ultimately, the THC cartridge that provides you with the best benefits will be a personal choice. Whether for general wellness or symptom relief, there’s a THC product that can suit your needs – you might just have to try a few to find the right one.

Are There Risks to Vaping THC?

The effects of smoking tobacco products have created the assumption that all inhaled substances are harmful to the lungs. However, this isn’t necessarily true – especially when it comes to cannabis vaping.

While overconsumption of any substance can lead to adverse effects, research has shown that cannabis vaping may have far fewer risks to lung health than smoking. While the significant differences between mass-produced cannabis and tobacco products are still being studied, the general lack of additives and other harmful chemicals in most cannabis vaping products is promising.

Additionally, the fact that cannabis users can control how much THC they consume by regulating the amount they vape as well as the heat at which they vape makes it easier to avoid adverse mental and physical side effects.

While the risks of vaping are still being studied, the side effects are generally considered to be mild – especially when compared to smoking. Some of the more commonly reported side effects of vaping THC include:

  • Dry mouth
  • Dry eyes
  • Bronchial irritation
  • Shortness of breath
  • Increased heart rate

These side effects typically dissipate after a few days, with lowered THC concentrations or by reducing the heat or frequency of use. However, if you experience any adverse effects while vaping, it’s always best to consult with a medical professional.

To ensure minimal discomfort or side effects when vaping, look for high-quality THC cartridges made using pure, natural ingredients. Organically grown hemp plants free from pesticides and other harmful chemicals will offer the safest, most effective vaping experience.

What Does Vaping THC Feel Like?

How you feel after vaping THC will depend on many factors, including the type of THC, your body chemistry, the quality of the product, and how much you vape. In general, most people report feeling:

  • Calmer
  • More relaxed
  • Creative
  • Energetic
  • Euphoric
  • Active
  • Motivated
  • Less anxious

The effects you experience will also depend on whether you’re using a pure THC oil or a cartridge containing other cannabinoids like CBD or terpenes. For example, if you’re using a cartridge with high concentrations of the citrusy terpene limonene, you may find yourself feeling more uplifted and energetic. In comparison, a cartridge with higher levels of the woodsy terpene myrcene could leave you feeling more relaxed.

Additionally, if your cartridge contains CBD, the non-psychoactive cannabinoid known for its calming effect, you may find that it helps to offset any anxiety or paranoia that can be associated with THC.

When it comes to finding the perfect THC cartridge for your needs, it’s all about experimentation. Try out a few different options to see which offers the desired effects and best suits your personal preferences.

How Long Do THC Cartridges Last in Storage?

THC oil extracted from hemp plants can last up to two years when stored properly. When stored in an airtight container in a cool, dark place, the oil will maintain its potency and freshness for an extended period of time.

To get the most out of your THC cartridge, it’s best to use it within six months of extraction. Most cannabis growers agree that cannabinoids are at their peak potency within this time frame. However, after six months, degradation of the THC will begin to occur, slowly reducing potency and effectiveness over time. You can check extraction dates by reading detailed lab reports available on each company’s website or on the product packaging.

For most, two years is more than enough time to finish a THC cartridge, considering that most people use up the carts within a month. However, if you find yourself with a surplus of oil purchased at a significant discount from one of the vendors above and want to ensure it remains fresh for future use, storing it in the fridge can help to prolong its shelf life. Furthermore, storing your carts upright and out of direct sunlight will also help to keep them fresh for longer.

If you’re unsure whether your cartridge is still good to use, it’s always best to err on the side of caution and discard it. Even if it hasn’t changed color and looks the same as it did when you first bought it, older oil may not produce the same effects and could lead to an unpleasant experience.

Is THC Legal?

THC products sourced from hemp plants are entirely legal on the federal level in the USA, provided that harvested batches of hemp contain less than the federally mandated 0.3% THC concentration.

Because of this 2018 change to federal law, other hemp-derived THC derivatives have also been removed from the list of controlled substances, including:

Delta-8 THC
Delta-8 THC is a hemp-derived cannabinoid that shares many similarities with its more well-known counterpart, Delta-9 THC. However, Delta-8 THC is said to offer a less intense psychoactive experience than Delta-9, making it a popular choice for those looking for the benefits of THC without the associated couch lock or anxiety.

While Delta-8 THC is federally legal in the USA, it’s important to check your state laws as some states have placed restrictions on the cannabinoid.

THC-O-Acetate
THC-O-acetate is a chemical derivative of THC that’s said to offer a more intense psychoactive experience. It’s not as commonly found in cannabis products as Delta-8 or Delta-9 THC, but it can be extracted from hemp plants and used to make THC carts.

Like Delta-8 THC, THC-O-acetate is federally legal in the USA but may be subject to state-level restrictions.

Delta-10 THC
Delta-10 THC is an isomer of THC that’s said to offer a more mild psychoactive experience. It’s not as commonly found in cannabis products as Delta-8 or Delta-9 THC, but it can be extracted from hemp plants and added to THC oil cartridges to help stimulate the entourage effect.

As a more niche cannabinoid, Delta-10 products are not as widely available as those containing other THC isomers. However, they can be purchased online from a variety of retailers.

Always remember that while THC cannabinoids are federally legal in the USA and, in many cases, safe to travel with, traveling with THC products internationally may result in serious legal repercussions. So make sure to check the laws of the countries you’re traveling to and from before packing any products made with THC in your luggage.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. Is vaping the same as smoking?
No. Vaping and smoking are two different methods of consuming cannabis. Vaping involves heating cannabis products to release the active compounds without actually setting them on fire, while smoking entails burning the plant material and inhaling the smoke. Many people prefer vaping over smoking as they don’t have to worry about inhaling harmful toxins associated with combustion.

2. Is it safe to vape THC oil?
Yes, vaping any type of THC is generally considered safe. However, as with any cannabis product, there is always a slight risk of adverse side effects, such as bronchial discomfort or dry mouth. Always make sure you are using THC vape cartridges that have been quality tested by third-party labs and proven to contain no harmful contaminants.

3. How many puffs are in a vape cartridge?
Vape carts can contain up to 1000 puffs depending on the cartridge’s size and the vape’s heat setting. Half-gram cartridges will typically contain 200-500 puffs with higher-end brands, while full-gram carts can have up to 1000 puffs. Infrequent vapers will find that puffing on a cartridge a few times per day will give them up to two weeks of use, while more frequent vapers may only get a few days out of a single cartridge.

4. How long will I feel the effects of vaping?
Vaping causes an almost immediate onset of the effects of THC. Within minutes, you will begin to feel the psychoactive and physiological effects of the THC start to set in. These effects can last for two to three hours, depending on the strength of the strain, the quality of the oil, and the frequency of use. Be aware that specific factors such as gender, body weight, metabolism, and medications being taken can increase or decrease the length of time you experience THC effects from vaping.

5. How do I get cheap vape cartridges?
Getting affordable vape cartridges is possible in several ways. The easiest way is to sign up for newsletters with companies that sell THC vape cartridges and wait for them to offer discounts and coupons. Additionally, you can subscribe to services that send out boxes of cannabis products each month for a discounted price. You can also find THC vape cartridges on sale and new product promotions by following manufacturers on social media sites.

Get the Best THC vape cartridges

Vaping your THC is an excellent alternative to rolling, grinding, eating, dosing, or dabbing your cannabis. Easy to use with rechargeable batteries that have one-touch functions, these cartridges provide potent doses of THC quickly, conveniently, and discreetly.

Consider purchasing vape cartridges from any of the brands listed above to get premium THC cannabinoids with every puff. Using industry-leading extraction methods, these brands create clean and potent oils perfect for anyone looking to get the most out of their THC cannabis oil vaping experience.